Rather it draws a high income because it is functionally important and the available personnel is for one reason or another scarce. Social inequality is thus an unconsciously evolved device by which societies insure that the most important positions are conscientiously filled by the most qualified persons. Hence, every society, no matter how simple or complex, must differentiate persons in terms of both prestige and esteem, and must therefore possess a certain amount of institutionalized inequality. ranking of positions occurs according to functional importance and the amount of training or talent associated with the position. High income, power, prestige of a particular position are due to functional importance or scarcity of trained personnel. Summary of the davis-moore Thesis :. Social positions have varying degrees of functional importance. Talented and trained individuals are scarce because acquisition of training and skills requires people to be sufficiently motivated to pursue them.
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Any society must distribute its individuals and induce them to perform the duties of their positions. It must solve the problem of motivation at two levels: to instill in the proper individuals the desire to occupy certain positions and, once in these positions the desire to perform the duties attached to them (davis 1948,. Not all positions are equally pleasant, equally important, or equal in terms of required talent and ability. There must be rewards to provide inducements and those rewards must be distributed unequally to assure that all positions get filled. The inequality of rewards corresponds to what davis and moore call functional importance of the position. Davis and moore state: Modern medicine, for example, is within the mental capacity of most individuals, but a medical education is so expensive and burdensome that virtually none would write undertake it if the position. Did not carry a reward commensurate with the sacrifice. The most important positions are rewarded the most-the least important are rewarded the least. On the issue of functional importance, davis and moore state: two termine the relative rank of different positions. In general those positions convey the best reward, and have the highest rank which (a) have the greatest importance for the society and (b) require the greatest training or talent. This means that, as davis and moore say: a position does not bring power and prestige because it draws a high income.
They ask: Why are some positions essay in society higher than others? Why do the higher positions carry more status and rewards? The answer they come up with is this:. Societies are stratified because inequality fulfills an important need of all social systems. Society must distribute its members among the various positions in society. People have to be motivated to fill certain positions and perform their duties. Filling the positions within a social structure is a basic need of any society. This is accomplished through the unequal distribution of rewards.
One such functionalist view of social inequality was developed by kinsley davis and Wilbert moore and has come to be known as the davis-moore Thesis. This functionalist theory of stratification was first discussed by the authors in 1945 in the article, some Principles of Stratification which appeared in the. American Sociological review and was later extended and refined in daviss book. Davis and moore argue like this: They claim that no society is unstratified. So, inequality is universal. This universal nature of stratification must mean that inequality is not only unavoidable, but indeed necessary to the smooth working of society. Then davis and moore set out to explain how inequality benefits society. (They assume it is beneficial then try to explain how it must be beneficial.).
Dissertation vs, thesis : What is the difference?
The functionalist view of Stratification:. Main principles of structural functionalism :. Societies are complex systems of interrelated and interdependent parts, and each part of a society significantly influences the others. Each part of a society exists because it has a vital function to perform in maintaining the existence or stability of society as lottery a whole; the existence of any part of a society is therefore explained when its function for the whole is identified. In other words, the function of anything, which is assumed to be beneficial function explains why a structure exists.
The tendency of society is toward stability, harmony, or equilibrium, in other words toward balance. Society is seen as a self-regulating system and all of the constituent elements of a society must contribute to maintaining this state of harmony. Overall, the assumption of functionalism is that all social structures contribute to the maintenance of the system and the existence of any given structure is explained by means of its consequences (functions) which must, by definition be beneficial to the maintenance of stable order. Functionalism on stratification: the davis-moore thesis :. With particular respect to the issue of social stratification or social inequality, the functionalist view argues that social inequality is necessary because it fulfills vital system needs.
It can always be tested by experimentation after the formulation. It is generated by gathering possible evidence. Later, the investigation is carried out to test the hypothesis. It is either accepted or assumed. A theory is basically a system comprising of ideas through which explanations are made.
A theory is based on the hypothesis. If the hypothesis is able to survive and pass all critical tests then it is eligible to be mentioned as a theory. A theory is always supported by evidence. Therefore, it is regarded to be a well confirmed type of explanation. A theory may also be used for predicting any of the future observations. One of the famous theories is Darwins revolutionary Theory. Darwin derived and used the information from various fields and subjects to establish this theory. Hypothesis and theory are related to each other but still differ in many aspects.
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A theory is the scientific explanation of an observed activity or a phenomenon. It explains rails the observations or events that are based upon any proven hypothesis. Therefore, hypothesis forms the base for a theory. A hypothesis is an uncertain explanation regarding a phenomenon or event. A tentative statement takes a form like - if X happens then Y must happen. Hypothesis can be tested by various methods, including the direct experimentation or using certain observation skills. It is important to mention that theories, laws and facts can start from being just a hypothesis at the initial phase.
tell what a person is thinking or feeling. What is the difference between a hypothesis and Assumption? hypothesis is an argument put forward to explain a phenomenon or sets of phenomena. Hypothesis is not a theory until it has been proved and verified under different circumstances. Anything taken for granted is an assumption, and a hypothesis is at best a working assumption. Hypothesis is a theory in waiting as it can be called theory only after verification. Key difference: a hypothesis is a tentative statement which provides explanations regarding a phenomenon or event. It is widely used as a base for conducting tests and the results of the tests determine the acceptance or rejection of the hypothesis.
A hypothesis is merely a proposition that is presented or put forward by a scientist to explain a natural phenomenon. It does not become a theory until it is proved and book tested under different conditions and circumstances. At best, it is an assumption that has been made working. It is rather correct to call a hypothesis a theory that needs verification and investigation. Any statement that is put forward for the sake of argument to support an occurrence or phenomenon is called a hypothesis. Making assumptions on the basis of looks and appearance of a person is common. We take for granted the qualities in a person on the basis of his skin color, hair color, and physique. We take for granted qualities that are mere assumption and no more.
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June 21, 2012 Posted by, admin, hypothesis vs Assumption. Hypothesis and assumption are concepts that are similar in nature and are used commonly in research and experiments. A hypothesis is a theory that seeks to explain a phenomenon or a set of phenomena. Scientists or researchers make up hypothesis to see if they hold water. They conduct a number of experiments and test this hypothesis, and if the hypothesis indeed proves correct, it is deemed to have become a theory. There is another word called assumption that is similar in meaning and confuses readers. This article attempts to highlight the differences between hypothesis and assumption. Something that has yet not been proved to classify as a theory but believed to be true by the researcher is labeled as a hypothesis.