Data Processing and Analysis, in both qualitative and quantitative studies, the precise method of how the data were processed and then analyzed is described. Increasingly, in qualitative studies, data collection and analysis is accomplished by using any one of several data collection and analysis tools available on the Internet such as Surveymonkey. Internet services are fast and accurate, and produce data that can be quickly incorporated in Chapter. In a qualitative study, the procedures for the protection of human participants should be stated. This section is nearly identical in all qualitative studies, which makes it subject to identification as plagiarism when submitted to a mechanical plagiarism tool. Ethical concerns are important, particularly in reference to planning, conducting, and evaluating research.
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Two types of questions are found in uni an interview protocol: the primary research questions, which are not asked of the participants, and the interview questions that are based on the primary research questions and are asked of the participants. Instruments should be placed in an appendix, not in the body of the text. Most qualitative studies include both a demographic survey to develop a picture of the participants, and an interview protocol. If the instrument is researcher created, a pilot study should be conducted to test the instrument. In a scientific study, the instrumentation used to collect data is described in detail, which may include an illustration of the setup. Procedure, fully describe how the data were collected. In a qualitative study, this is the section where most of the appendices are itemized, starting with letters of permission to conduct the study and letters of invitation to participate with attached consent forms. This is also the place where any study involving human subjects must essay state that it is compliant with the. Department of health and Human Services Code of Federal Regulations, 45 cfr.10 2 (2009). A paragraph must be inserted that states the study is deemed to be one of minimal risk to participants and that the probability and magnitude of harm or discomfort anticipated in the research will not be greater than any ordinarily encountered in daily life,. In a quantitative study, this section will detail when and how the data were collected.
Typically, researchers strive for a power.80, which refers to an 80 certainty that an existing effect will be resume found in the sample. The effect is the difference in perceived effectiveness between mediums. Instrumentation, in a qualitative study, the instrument used to collect data may be created by the researcher or based on an existing instrument. . If the instrument is researcher created, the process used to select the questions should be described and justified. If an existing instrument is used, the background of the instrument is described including who originated it and what measures were used to validate. If a likert scale is used, the scale should be described. If the study involves interviews, an interview protocol should be developed that will result in a consistent process of data collection across all interviews.
Describe the participant book pool. In a qualitative study, the decision regarding the number of participants years in a study becomes a reflection the studys purpose. Ten to twelve participants may prove sufficient in qualitative inquiries involving the understanding of experiences and perceptions of participants. A successful purposeful sample in a phenomenological study could range from 1. Sample size is based on the total number of potential participants. The required sample size should be determined through a power analysis. Such an analysis uses the alpha level and the population effect size (the estimated effect of the independent variable within the target population) to estimate the number of participants needed to demonstrate an existing effect.
A scientific study has variable, which are sometimes mentioned in Chapter 1 and defined in more depth in Chapter. Spell out the independent and dependent, variables. An unfortunate trend in some institutions is to repeat the research questions and/or hypotheses in both Chapter 1 and Chapter 3, a needless redundancy. Sometimes an operational statement of the research hypotheses in null form is given to set the stage for later statistical inferences. In a quantitative study, state the level of significance that will be used to accept or reject the hypotheses. In a quantitative study, a survey instrument that is researcher designed needs a pilot study to validate the effectiveness of the instrument, and the value of the questions to elicit the right information to answer the primary research questions. In a scientific study, a pilot study may precede the main observation to correct any problems with the instrumentation or other elements in the data collection technique. Describe the pilot study as it relates to the research design, development of the instrument, data collection procedures, or characteristics of the sample. Setting and Participants, in a quantitative study, describe the geographic location where the study will take place, cite recognizable landmarks such as a nearby urban city.
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Our consultants are skilled in both quantitative and qualitative methods and can assist students choose and defend an appropriate research design. The purpose of the methodology chapter is to give an experienced investigator enough invitation information to replicate the study. Some advisors do not understand this and require students to write what is, in effect, a textbook. . A research design is used to structure the research and to show how all of the major parts of the research project, including the sample, measures, and methods of assignment, work together to address the central research questions in the study. The chapter should begin with a paragraph reiterating the purpose of the study.
The following subjects may or may not be in the order required by a particular institution of higher education, but all of the subjects constitute a defensible methodology chapter. Appropriateness of the research Design, this section is optional in some institutions, but required by others. Specify that the research for the dissertation is experimental, quasi-experimental, correlational, causal-comparative, quantitative, qualitative, mixed methods, or another design. The designated approach should be defended by contrasting and comparing it with alternate methods and rejecting those that do not meet the needs of the study. This section should not be a textbook description of various research designs, but a focused effort to match a rational research design with the purpose of the study. Research Design, a qualitative study does not have variables.
Key resources, strengths and weaknesses). No inclusion criteria were applied for the individual applicants; hence, all were made part of the population. However, due to time and budget constraints, the researcher opted for a smaller sample size. For this study, the survey-questionnaire instruments were used achieve the main objective of the study. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to the selected senior managers.
The questionnaire given to the senior managers aimed to assess the business practice of aia in competing with other insurance and finance industry. In addition, this also aims to evaluate the efficiency of the strategies of aia in terms of the mentioned aspects above. In general, the performance of the aia was evaluated for this study in order to determine whether its strategy is effective or not. This focus of the assessment was based on the principles introduced by various authors. The questionnaire was structured in such a way that respondents will be able to answer it easily. Thus, the set of questionnaire was structured using the likert format with a five-point response scale. A likert Scale is a rating scale that requires the subject to indicate his or her degree of agreement or disagreement to a statement.
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Respondents of the Study. The study will have senior managers of aia. All of these participants were selected through random sampling. This sampling resume method is conducted where each member of a population has an equal opportunity to become part of the sample. As all members of the population have an equal chance of becoming a research participant, this is said to be the most efficient sampling procedure. In order to conduct this sampling strategy, the researcher defined the population first, listed down all the members of the population, and then selected members to make the sample. For this purpose, a self-administered survey questionnaire in likert format was given to the respondents to answer. The senior managers assessed the management strategies of aia terms of the outcome of its process (e.g.
Furthermore, this method allows for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of research subjects (Matveev, 2002). Research Instrument, the researcher designs a self-administered questionnaire for the data gathering process to get qualitative and quantitative data. The primary aim of the questionnaire is to determine the strategy used by American International Assurance company to overcome the challenges given by the banking industries writing that offers both insurance and investment plans as part of the product portfolio. This research will use a mixture of closed questions and more open comments in the questionnaire. . A closed question is one that has pre-coded answers. . The simplest is the dichotomous question to which the respondent must answer yes. . Through closed questions, the researcher will be able to limit responses that are within the scope of this study.
study, the research used qualitative and quantitative approach. The qualitative method permits a flexible and iterative approach, while the quantitative research method permits specification of dependent and independent variables and allows for longitudinal measures of subsequent performance of the research subject. The value of qualitative research can best be understood by examining its characteristics. One of the primary advantages of qualitative research is that it is more open to the adjusting and refining of research ideas as an inquiry proceeds. Also, the researcher does not attempt to manipulate the research setting, as in an experimental study, but rather seeks to understand naturally occurring phenomena in their naturally occurring states. Inductive reasoning, as opposed to deductive reasoning, is common in qualitative research, along with content or holistic analysis in place of statistical analysis (meyer et al, 1995). On the other hand, quantitative method is compatible with the study because it allows the research problem to be conducted in a very specific and set terms (Cooper schindler, 1998). Besides, quantitative research plainly and distinctively specifies both the independent and the dependent variables under investigation. It also follows resolutely the original set of research goals, arriving at more objective conclusions, testing hypothesis, determining the issues of causality and eliminates or minimises subjectivity of judgment (Kealey protheroe, 1996).
The credibility of findings and conclusions extensively depend on the quality of the research design, data collection, data management, and data analysis. . This chapter will essay be dedicated to the description of the methods and procedures done in order to obtain the data, how they will be analysed, interpreted, and how the conclusion will be met. This section is to justify the means in which the study was obtained and will help in giving it purpose and strength as it will then be truthful and analytical. All these will help in the processing of the data and the formulation of conclusions. Specifically, this research will cover the following: the research design and method, the respondents or subjects to be studied (which will include the sampling method the data collection instrument, and the data analysis. These will be presented below. In this research, i will use descriptive method of research is to gather information about the present existing condition. . The purpose of employing this method is to describe the nature of a situation, as it exists at the time of the study and to explore the cause/s of particular phenomena.
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Chapter 3, methodology, this study was conducted in order to assess the business practice or strategy of aia in Hong Kong. The focus of the assessment was on the firm's management strategies. In order to gather the necessary data, the researcher utilized the descriptive method, using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. A total of 50 respondents were randomly selected as participants. The survey-questionnaire method was the research instruments used for data-gathering. The senior managers who have proper been chosen in this study accomplished a survey questionnaire to evaluate the strategy used by aia. The results of the survey were then processed by computing the weighted mean of each survey item. The computed values were compared to the likert scale for data interpretation. Relevant literatures were also used to support the gathered findings.